Assurance in Accuracy of Pap Smear and Diagnostic Laboratory Medicine at MDC

Carcinoma in-situ by Cytology of Cervix/Pap smearModerate to Severe Squamous Dysplasia (HSIL) of Cervical Tissue


Typically, when a patient visits a clinician for laboratory medicine evaluation, i.e. pap smear, cellular or tissue biopsy, blood or body fluid testing, the medical laboratory that receives the sample is relatively dependent on the clinical office staff, non-laboratory staff member at hospital, and/or physician for appropriate collection of test sample, accuracy of labeling  test sample as well as other  documentations regarding the test sample.  This level of dependency, which by the way loses credibility simply by being manipulated by multiple persons before testing, requires appropriate communication and documentation about the patient’s demographic, clinical information, and descriptive characteristics pertaining to the pap smear, cellular/tissue biopsy, or blood/body fluid sample submitted.  Often times this most important first-step in communication and documentation is compromised, leading to error and/or potentially harmful medical outcome for patients. Remember in general, “Quality and Accuracy in Laboratory Medicine Diagnosis” starts with appropriate communication and documentation before the sample reaches the medical laboratory for testing.

In our unique medical practice at MDC-Atlanta, we are able to essentially eliminate this potential compromise in patient care, because there is a direct complete medical evaluation/communication between the patient and the general practitioner/ laboratory medicine specialist at MDC, which assures accountability for appropriate therapy and management as well as  continuity of care.

For example during a pap smear evaluation, our physician directly interviews the patient regarding ALL pertinent clinical information.  This would include collecting information directly from the patient as it would relate to the patient’s gynecological history such as previous  pap smear result(s), previous or current gynecological diagnosis(es) and/or treatment(s), last menstrual period and its regularity or lack thereof, history of pregnancy, presence or absence of previous sexually transmitted diseases, other medical diagnoses,etc. Once a complete history is obtained, our physician provides a thorough clinical pelvic examination using standard medical procedures.  We also perform a bi-manual examination to palpate for abnormally enlarged ovary, uterus, or any other palpable abnormality. A swab sample of the vaginal canal, external and internal cervix is collected and appropriately smeared onto a glass slide, and prepared for immediate microscopic review of the cells collected for accurate diagnosis by our physician the same day while the patient wait. The most important component to this process, is that the physician collecting and reading the sample, can determine if the sample is adequate or representative of any abnormal changes during the clinical examination. We believe that a conventional pap smear is just as effective in detecting pertinent vaginal/cervical and even uterine lesions in some instances as the liquid-based pap examination; and this has been documented in the medical literature (JAMA. 2009;302(16):1757-1764).  Furthermore, a decision can be made along with the patient for further diagnostic testing as it relates to, for example, the necessity for Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) testing, or molecular testing or other diagnostic testing at the time of the initial clinical visit. Keep in mind if a Pap smear is within normal limits, then Human Papilloma Virus testing or any other additional tests may not be necessary.  In general, this process of having a laboratory medicine specialist directly evaluate the pap smear alone saves patients unnecessary expense as it relates to the pap testing and/or diagnosis.

Our physician routinely consults with associated, appropriately credentialed laboratory medicine physician consultant/specialist with respect to second review and/or second opinion to highlight our commitment to accuracy and quality diagnostic testing.

We are essentially able to minimize or eliminate false negative and/or false positive results from ANY CELLULAR OR TISSUE TESTING, through direct-patient care/evaluation by our physician.  This is the assurance that we give to our patients, and we provide immediate medical therapy and/or appropriately refer our patients in the proper direction for continuity of care as deemed necessary.

Saving patients hundreds of dollars as well as anxiety and frustration through direct-patient care by General Practitioner/ Laboratory Medicine Specialist!

Thanks for visiting Medical Diagnostic Choices.





Cytology: Doc, Just tell me, “Is This Lump Cancer or Not?”

Cytology in History

Much information can be gathered by observing the cell and/or its surroundings under a light microscope.

More than 170 years ago, scientists/pathologists recognized that accurate diagnosis of cancer could be determined by simply observing the structure of the cell under a light microscope.

A cytological diagnosis can be simple to perform, saves patients hundreds of dollars ( essentially pennies on a dollar as compared to tissue diagnosis), and typically is less painful than an open tissue biopsy; surely less scarring and debilitating. More importantly, Cytology creates practicality for mobile pathology and rapid diagnosis.  In fact, the only materials needed for a pathologist to make a definitive cytological diagnosis are a slide (generally less than $1), non-toxic stain/fixative (generally less than $5), and a light microscope.  So this gives you an idea just how inexpensive cytological diagnostic testing can be. For example, when you factor in the above expense and the professional services, the fee for cytological diagnosis could be as little as $50 dollars, depending on the type of cytological evaluation done.  Not bad, eh?

Dr. Gates demonstrates the simplicity and low expense to study cells for an accurate diagnosis

The Immediate Use of Cytology? To determine if a growth is cancerous or not (benign or reactive). And, it should be the mainstay in diagnostic pathology.  This is what I use in my practice to prioritize  further diagnostic study on cytological samples from my patients when assessing cancer diagnosis through Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA), or simple body fluid smears/touch imprints, as with pap smear, or blood smear for example.  And, I am literally able to save them frustration, anxiety, and expense, by giving my patient a cellular diagnosis on the spot.

Here are the criteria that are typically helpful when assessing cellular disease:

1) Reactive versus Neoplastic: Reactive implies benign appearing cells, i.e. having usual preservation of the cell’s normal shape and size, mixed with inflammatory cells, or showing degenerative changes with or without inflammatory cells.  Neoplastic implies loss of cellular maturation, as well as an abnormal growth pattern that is different from normal mature cells of the same origin.

2) Neoplasia: a) Benign Growth; or  b) Cancerous Growth

3) Benign Growth:

a) Low cellularity (low number of cells); tightly cohesive cells.

b) Maintain Cellular Polarity (i.e. usual structure of nuclear size, shape, and position in the cell with cytoplasm)

c) Demonstrate minimal maturation arrest.

4)  Cancerous Growth (May Not Apply to Hematological Cancers):

a) High Cellularity (increased number of cells); loosely cohesive cells,usually in various sized clusters or singly.

b) Loss of cellular polarity (i.e, cell nuclear size, shape, and position vary from one cell to the other with respect to cytoplasm.

c) Pleomorphism/Polymorphism: This means that cells of same origin, i.e. epithelial, or stromal, or neural, etc, have variation in nuclear membrane irregularity, often with the size of the nucleus being enlarged and distorting the cell cytosol/cytoplasm and cell membrane.

d) Proliferative index: Generally, normal cells are in resting phase of growth; so to see many cells, and/or evidence of cellular division is a sign of rapid, abnormal cell proliferation, i.e. mitotic index.

e) Cell growing within cell.  Normal cells (other than placental cells or certain types of hormonal cells and the likes) do not grow within other cells, ie. cup and saucer, cell nuclear fusion, etc.

f) Marked cell-maturation arrest (a cancer cell may not resemble the original cell, having features of embryonic cell, or undifferentiated cell)

5. Hematological Cancerous Growth:

a) Monoclonal, which means a proliferation of one cell type, i.e. myeloblast or lymphoblast, etc, which often times requires special studies as indicated below

b) Lack of appropriate maturation sequence of individual hematological cell when compared to other cells of same origin, often expressing genetic or chromosomal abnormality as in dysplastic changes.

Special cytochemistries, or cytogenetics or other molecular studies can now be performed on cellular samples to objectively and accurately confirm cellular abnormality/diagnosis, as needed.  This also essentially eliminates subjective interpretation of cytological results.

Cellular Images of Diagnostic Features Can be Provided Via DIGITAL DIAGNOSTIC REPORTS (for transparency and Evidence for Diagnosis).

We make every attempt to save our patients time and money by simply doing cellular procedures over open tissue biopsy.  Open tissue biopsy tends to be more painful, debilitating, risky and yes, “expensive.”

Thanks for reading.

Jackson L. Gates, MD, Medical Diagnostic Choices, MDC-Atlanta

We Welcome Our New Patients

Letter to New Patient of Medical Diagnostic Choices

Dear  Patient:

I would like to send my deepest regards and sincere appreciation to you for allowing me to be your primary care doctor and laboratory medicine specialist.  I consider it an honor and a privilege to do so.

As we establish hopefully a life-long patient-physician relationship, I hope that you will consider me as a partner in the overall management of your health care.  I believe this can be done by my honoring your dignity, creating a mutually respectful relationship, and showing compassion for your well-being.  It is a prudent decision to have ONE Primary Care Provider to help you manage your overall, general medical care.

Choosing or visiting multiple primary care providers and/or medical specialists who do not communicate one to the other could potentially bring serious harm to your health.

We reserve the right to discharge any patient from our medical practice who violates our medical practice policy, as our primary goal is to provide the highest quality of standard and safe medical care.

We would like to highlight a special feature of our practice at MDC-Atlanta to our new patients: ONLINE MEDICAL CARE, which is provided to our established patients after a face to face visit with Dr. Gates, or to those patients who have NON-emergency acute illness, or stable chronic disease. We believe that this provides convenience for our patients who are generally healthy or who have stable, non-emergency, chronic disease.

For us to establish a relationship that will assure the Highest Quality and Safe Health Care here is what I would suggest:

1.       Be compliant with your medication(s); that simply means take your medication(s) as prescribed by the doctor.  Also follow the doctor’s order to enhance your well-being, i.e. doing light exercise and managing a sensible nutritional diet as well as keeping your appointed and scheduled visits with the doctor. 

2.       Self-monitor your blood sugar and blood pressure when necessary if at all possible, and record each reading along with date and time in a notebook for the doctor to review on follow up visits

3.       Notify the doctor when you become ill, or if you notice that certain medications that you take cause you to become ill, or if you are seen in the emergency room, or if you are admitted to a hospital

4.       Notify the doctor when you have been evaluated by a different doctor who may be unfamiliar to me as your primary care doctor and laboratory medicine specialist

5.       Call to schedule follow up office and/or home visits by me.

I can be notified 24/7 by simply calling my office number at: 678-591-6509.  My medical practice is accessible 24/7 via the practice website at:, or by contacting the office number.  CALL DR. GATES NOW, AT 678-591-6509 TO HAVE A LIVE-FACE-TIME VIDEO CONSULTATION!! At times, you may be invited to participate in our live ONLINE community forums sponsored by me (SIMPLY GIVE DR GATES A CALL IF YOU WOULD LIKE A DISCUSSION ABOUT YOUR PARTICULAR HEALTH CONDITION AS AN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE). During these forums, Dr. Gates will provide an educational session for patients to learn about different types of diseases.  This will include a clinical presentation followed by discussion regarding basic human anatomy and physiology, pathophysiology (origin, development and manifestation of diseases), sharing digital diagnostic images via video or pictures,clinical studies, treatment and management, as well as discussion of select relevant, peer-reviewed reference articles from the medical literature.  We will also take questions from our patient-physician audience.


I look forward to working with you as we work together to assure your quality and safe, affordable/convenient health care.


Jackson L. Gates, MD, Chief Practitioner and Owner, Medical Diagnostic Choices, MDC-Atlanta

Why Choose Direct-Care by a General Practitioner-Laboratory Medicine Specialist

The first and foremost duty of a physician is to educate or inform his patients, while keeping the patient safe or doing no harm to the patient.

Dr. Jackson Gates, MD

Dr. Jackson Gates, MD, The General Practitioner and Laboratory Medicine Physician who is a MEDICAL CONSULTANT FOR PATIENTS, and who treats the whole patient, not being confined to a desk in a cubicle or laboratory.

The ‘Days of Old’ are long gone, when the laboratory medicine specialists are only called upon to diagnose cancer (by biopsy and/or removal of part or whole ORGAN) or determine the cause of death which can be morbid! Patients may not need that biopsy or removal of that organ which can not be replaced in its native state!


With the advent of the modern internet, social media, and rapidly and consistently rising health care costs, patients are taking on diligent efforts to become more informed about their health care, and having a willingness to partner with a provider who will help them manage their overall care. The model for this relationship is termed,

“Patient-Centered Medical Home-PCMH

Direct Patient Care.”

Dr. Jackson Gates promotes “homeostasis, pragmatic medical care, through general adult preventative care” where the goal is to PREVENT disease altogether or detect disease in its earliest stage, similar to the human body using different organic systems to keep the entire human being  in BALANCE and functioning appropriately (HOMEOSTASIS), in a effort to reduce human suffering and prevent early untimely death (Guaranteed Commitment)

Patients who choose this type model of health-care generally have more direct communication, better rapport, and a mutually respectful interaction with their providers.  Patients have a number of choices of providers that they now can select with whom to form this patient-physician relationship.  About forty percent (40%) of patients nationwide are now receiving direct care by specialists who are also providers of general medical care (Primary Care Medicine).  Patients accept full financial responsibility in this regard, i.e. self-pay or pay out of pocket.  This type model also makes health-care more competitively affordable.

Many patients seek the advice of a medical provider when they are concerned about a disease or illness.  The medical provider uses clinical and laboratory diagnostic studies as well as other special clinical studies to confirm or reject disease or illness in accordance with National and International Standards and Guidelines. This is generally known as “Evidence-based Medicine.”This process takes place after the primary medical provider/laboratory medicine specialist has obtained a complete medical history and physical examination.  Remember, the patient has ALL the information that the medical provider needs in order to render efficient, effective, accurate diagnosis as well as high quality and safe medical care. We at MDC-Atlanta obtain this helpful information to guide diagnosis, therapy, and management by doing the following:

-Listening to patient;

-observing various signs of illness and/or disease;

-investigating and/or analyzing evidence for illness and/or disease; and

-correlating and collaborating a final conclusion for management with patient highlighted by evidential support through the current medical literature. 

(L-Listen; O-Observe; I-Investigate; A-Analyze; C-Collaborate, and C-Communicate)

In fact, the purpose of laboratory medicine is to provide guidance with respect to two clinical categories for therapeutic and prognostic management,  based on scientific, objective clinical laboratory testing: 1) Well-Patient; and 2) Patient with Illness or Disease.  Laboratory medicine physician generally specializes in the diagnosis of clinical and anatomic diseases, and  selects appropriate medical laboratory testing to enhance sensitivity and specificitySensitivity  is the ability of a test method to accurately detect disease/illness.  Specificity is the ability of a test method to accurately exclude disease/illness. These two methods, sensitivity and specificity are used together to heighten accurate diagnostic laboratory testing interpretation. We also consider PREVALENCE of DISEASE/ILLNESS  within a community, as well as PREDICTABILITY of a test method when selecting a SPECIFIC or SENSITIVE TEST METHOD which also HEIGHTENS ACCURACY of the FINAL RESULTS of TESTING.  So, when a patient is assessed both clinically and through laboratory evaluation for disease or illness by a laboratory medicine physician, this direct-patient care assures credibility of the final laboratory test results, as well as timely and proper communication for appropriate follow up of medical care and/or management.  Errors are essentially eliminated through this direct care relationship between patient and general practitioner/laboratory medicine specialist.  Often times physicians, and now prudent patients, request the direct services of the laboratory medicine physician in this regard.

Consulting the Laboratory Medicine ExpertSchemata for Solving The Unknown

Here are examples of benefits regarding evaluation by generalist/laboratory medicine specialist:

1. Same day, Reproducible, Accurate Diagnoses (This means the final diagnostic interpretation by Dr. Gates can withstand scrutiny by other laboratory medicine experts.  Another expression for this statement is reproducible accuracy of diagnostic results because it is based on established scientific criteria as promoted by National and International Authorities):

a) Fine-Needle Aspiration, Biopsy of Lumps: Breast, Thyroid, Lymph Node, and Soft Tissue

b) Pap-smear

c) Blood smear

d) Joint fluid, sputum, etc.

e) Shave biopsy of Skin tumor

2. Fast turn around time of most clinical laboratory results (most within 48-72 hours), followed by timely verbal communication between patient and doctor with regards to appropriate treatment and management, and/or referrals.

Fast, Accurate Diagnostic Result routes patients to the appropriate specialist for definitive medical treatment, surgery, and management, as well as saves patients unnecessary additional expense.

The Laboratory Medicine Physician undergoes many years of extensive clinical and laboratory medical training in understanding the origin, development and manifestation as well as treatment and management of many different types of diseases or illnesses.  This allows for appropriate management for the patient particularly as it relates to detecting disease/illness early and preventative care maintenance.  Typically known as the “Doctor’s Doctor,” modern laboratory medicine physician provides medical care and evaluation, as well as management directly to patient.  This direct relationship with the laboratory medicine physician allows patients to participate in managing their overall medical care through efficiency and reducing health care expense through unnecessary lab tests.


In our unique medical practice, we promote early detection of disease and preventative care through laboratory medicine because it assures better outcome for overall medical care. 

It is clear throughout the medical literature that more than 80% of medical decisions are based on laboratory medicine data. Dr Gates personally provides patients with complete medical care which includes not only a medical history and physical examination, but also fast, accurate, evidence-based laboratory medicine diagnoses, followed by treatment and management of many different types of diseases.  Such diseases and/or illnesses include sexually transmitted disease,urinary tract infection, bronchitis/pneumonia, skin rash, diabetes, arthritis, and degenerative bone/spine disease causing chronic neuropathic or nociceptive pain, for example.  We also refer patients to appropriate medical specialists when necessary only after we have given our patients working, complex diagnoses for continuity of their medical care.

Our mission is to guide our patients as partners in managing their care through the complexity of high quality, accurate, and safe medical care .

We at MDC, believe that the very premise of medical care provided by a responsible physician is to appropriately advise patients with regards to RISK versus Benefit for medical therapy.  In our practice, and as a general practitioner, if your risk to benefit ratio is greater than one (1),i.e. risks outweigh benefits for medical therapy, then we will either make a recommendation against medical therapy or refer our patients to the appropriate specialist for high risk therapy or further medical management. We, at MDC-Atlanta, are committed to “FIRST DOING NO HARM”, which is the mainstay of the Hippocratic Oath, and the far most responsible duty of a physician and/or medical practice, regardless of the physician’s designated medical specialty!

We welcome your partnership with our practice, as we offer our patients safe, CONVENIENT, affordable, accountable, and transparent patient-direct, high-quality general medical care as well as diagnostic laboratory medicine.

Thanks for visiting: Medical Diagnostic Choices-MDC-Atlanta

Logical Derivation of Accurate Diagnosis, Safe and Effective Medical Treatment and Management:

If you can solve this equation:
A + B = C

Then you should be able to solve this one:

Sx + Sn + evidence= Diagnosis of illness or disease.


This One:

Ta -SE +SC + Le = Tx

Sx (symptoms); Sn (signs); Evidence (labs, imaging studies, clinical studies, etc)
(Ta-targeted Proven-EFFECTIVE agent/drug); SE (side effect of drug); SC (Supportive Care); Le (Least expense); Tx (therapy or treatment)



An Online Medical Survey, MDC-Atlanta

We, at MDC-Atlanta, believe that online, digital-based medicine is safe, effective, and saves patients time and money while providing convenience for patient.

Primary duty of online medical practice is to first provide a triage-consultation for patients to receive timely medical advice from a licensed physician.  While the goal is not to treat every patient’s  illness or disease via online communication without properly providing appropriate medical history and physical examination by way of face to face visit in our office or at the patient’s home, proper questioning could lead to patient getting appropriate medical advice  from a licensed physician. Online medical survey or consultation saves the patient money, time and route patient in the proper direction for either safe telemedicine/telepathology care/consultation  and/or appropriate face to face medical care and/or management.

Here is an online medical consultation/survey that you may complete  prior to contacting our office at MDC-Atlanta:

1. Are you currently under the care of a physician? Yes–Please contact your health care provider or have that provider contact Dr. Gates;

NO, then proceed to question #2

2. When was your last visit to a health care provider? Recently or within the past month, year or two years, i.e. days, weeks, months, etc–Please contact that provider or have that health care provider directly contact Dr. Gates

I have not seen a health care provider, and I am over 21 years old, then proceed to question #3.

3. Do you have any medical diagnosis, or are you currently or have you previously been treated for an acute, short-term or chronic, long-term medical condition(s), i.e. heart disease, lung disease, liver disease, kidney disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, stroke, aneurysm, HIV, cancer, connective tissue disease, chronic pain syndrome,etc: YES, Please contact the health care provider who diagnosed and/or treated you for your previous diagnosis(es) and/or illness(es) or have that health care provider directly contact Dr. Gates

NO, then proceed to question #4

4. What are your current symptoms? Do you feel like those symptoms have gotten worse over hours or days, and you are anxious about these symptoms regarding life emergency, and that you have never experienced these symptoms before? Yes, if possible, please go to an emergency room immediately or call 911.

No, then proceed to question #5

5. Have you experienced any other symptoms, i.e. recent cough, fever, night sweats, chest pain, shortness of breath, headaches, fainting, dizziness,  weakness, abnormal bleeding, chills, diarrhea, constipation, nausea, vomiting, itching skin, red, irritated or painful, abnormally colored skin lesions, discharge, painful/abnormally colored urination, bone or joint pain, etc, prior to becoming ill with current condition? Yes, Please explain?

No, then proceed to question #6

6. Would you like to schedule a telemedicine consultation with Dr. Gates or schedule a face to face visit with Dr. Gates for diagnostic evaluation, medical care and/or management? NO.  Please contact another health care provider to receive appropriate care.

YES, ( please call Dr. Gates to arrange for a direct telemedicine consultation or  face to face directed physical examination, medical treatment and/or management in our medical office or at the patient’s home)

Answering the above questions truthfully, could lead to shortened office or home visit, fast rapport, rapid, accurate diagnosis, treatment, and management by Dr. Gates, as well as heightened quality and safe medical care.


Thank you for visiting Medical Diagnostic Choices-MDC-Atlanta
Jackson L. Gates, MD

What is Telepathology & Telemedicine?

To answer the above question: It is Digital-based Medicine which affordsTransparent and Accountable Medical Care at a Distance.

Telemedicine/ telepathology can be viewed as “medicine on the go,” or simply “mobile medicine”.

Our modern society is developing into the infamous “digital life.” We shop, socialize, entertain, and even learn about new and exciting ways of doing our routine business “online.” In a sense, it is a way of loosely networking and finding the best solution for your life essentials. And, as we all know, when we get insights from others with far superior experience, skill, knowledge, and even talent, we gain significantly in many aspects.  Patients in particularly can become beneficiaries of unsurpassed high- quality and evidence-based medicine, when using the internet to shop around, compare quality and cost of medical services that will fit within the patient’s busy schedule, and not just convenient to a 9-5 office based medical practice schedule.

A number of telemedicine and telepathology online consultation practices are beginning to be the norm rather than the exception. Experts around the world are now able to interview the patient online, discuss and review clinical information, laboratory test result, as well as review pathology slide images as well as radiological images shared by others in real-time with images that have high-resolution(clearly visible and easily recognizable images).  Moreover, this makes it possible for patients to be better informed about their objective clinical diagnoses through a network-consortium of experts without one having to leave the comfort of one’s home or one’s work location for that matter.  But by simply signing on to a practice such as ours with an office located in Atlanta at, you can gain the world of second opinion, and guidance on how to stay healthy and prevent certain diseases. We will treat you like family because we care about your health.

By our dedicated professional, Dr. Jackson  L. Gates, MD,  doing a scientific and critical review of the current medical literature on your behalf, and by inviting other experts to the discussion, the ultimate outcome could lead to unrecognized ways of working up your particular disease or treating and managing an illness otherwise thought not to be treatable, at comparable savings to you.  And that should matter. For instance, the goal is to present your medical information in a forum similar to a “tumor board discussion” and/or “clinico-pathological correlation-CPC conference” as done in a hospital setting, except, we bring it directly to the patient via an online discussion.  Wow, that is quality medicine at its best, when you (the patient) become the subject matter, and various opinions about your health and treatment strategy are presented.  Don’t worry.  Your healthcare data and information will be safe and protected because it is required by law (HIPAA RULES:

If you care to get started in controlling and managing your healthcare, then visit me to learn more at to begin learning how you can be in the driver’s seat of your healthcare, controlling cost, and preventing disease before the disease process is too advanced  and cost prohibitive.

MDC Provides Post-Mortem Services-up to $3500

When you need to put your mind at rest to be assured that your loved one did not die in vain or because of a mistake made by the health-care professional, a private postmortem evaluation may be able to bring a sense of closure for the surviving family member(s) of the deceased.

We make certain that your deceased loved one is treated with the utmost respect, and our postmortem evaluation is done with standards of professional medical care and conduct.  A private postmortem evaluation can independently confirm or determine the cause of death, and identify the nature and extent of any other diseases present. It may also help you better understand your relative’s illness and cause of death. Our private postmortem results can also help with the treatment of other patients with similar illnesses.


The most important FIRST STEP is for the NEXT of KIN to  immediately obtain medical records of the deceased loved one from hospitals and all health-care providers involved in the patient’s medical care during life at least three (3) months prior to the love one’s death.  The process of obtaining medical records is similar as with during life for transition of medical care,CLICK HERE TO VIEW.

The next step is for the Next of Kin  to directly contact Dr. Gates with a request to have a post-mortem examination performed on your loved one, prior to the body being released from the hospital or other medical/nursing home facility where the deceased love one expired, CLICK HERE TO CONTACT DR. GATES.

AN AUTOPSY MAY NOT BE NECESSARY TO DERIVE AT AN ACCURATE CAUSE OF DEATH AFTER DR. GATES HAS REVIEWED THE COMPLETE MEDICAL RECORDS OF THE DECEASED LOVE ONE. For those next of kin family members to the deceased who can’t afford to pay for an autopsy, we will provide select, limited autopsy evaluation through our nonprofit organization, “The Institute of Pathology and Laboratory Medical Science, INC.” (You may review this announcement in the Lab service provided)



Toxicology Evaluation
In this evaluation, we only perform an external evaluation of the deceased body for identification purpose.  DUE TO CHAIN OF CUSTODY, WE DO NOT PERFORM TOXICOLOGY TESTING. Toxicology is usually performed by the medical examiner’s office for complete toxicology drug testing.
Limited Evaluation
In this evaluation, we only examine the internal organs in the chest and abdomen for trunk only.  Or, for brain only, we only examine the brain and proximal spinal chord.
Complete Evaluation
In this evaluation, we provide a complete external and internal examination.  Selected laboratory testing is also done according to antecedent medical records for the deceased individual, as well as based on the autopsy findings.

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